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Troubleshooting, Condition Evaluation, And Forensic Services

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We Offer The Following Troubleshooting And Condition Evaluation Services

Troubleshooting, condition evaluation, and forensic services


We Offer The Following Troubleshooting And Condition Evaluation Services

We Offer The Following Troubleshooting And Condition Evaluation Services

Troubleshooting, condition evaluation, and forensic services


We Use The Following Techniques

  • Petrographic examination of concrete and cementitious materials (ASTM C856) including visual examination of specimens in as-received condition, stereomicroscopy of polished cross-sectional surfaces, thin section analysis using fluorescence microscopy, and phenolphthalein staining to characterize the composition and condition as well as causes of deterioration or distress in submitted samples,

  • Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) analysis (ASTM C1723) for elemental composition of concrete, cementitious materials, aggregate and secondary deposits,

  • Chloride analysis to measure acid-soluble chloride content (ASTM C1152) or water-soluble chloride content (ASTM C1218) within a material to evaluate for corrosion potential and external chloride exposure,

  • Hardened air void system analysis (ASTM C457) to evaluate for total air content and air void system parameters for freeze-thaw durability,

  • Volumetric proportioning testing (ASTM C457) to quantitatively assess proportioning of concrete in comparison with mix design or specifications,

  • Bulk resistivity testing (ASTM C1876) to characterize the capillary porosity of concrete mixture(s),

  • Petrographic examination of aggregates (ASTM C295) to identify potentially deleterious materials with potential for alkali-aggregate reactivity, staining, and/or pop-outs,

  • and more!


Why Choose Us?

Our laboratory technicians are highly experienced with testing requirements of different pavement preservation materials. Twining laboratories consistently help public works agencies and contractors to test materials such as:

  • Slurry Seal

  • Microsurfacing

  • REAS

  • Chip Seal

The typical tests that we perform for such materials are:

  • Wet Track Abrasion

  • Asphalt content

  • Emulsion content

  • Aggregate gradation

  • Sand Equivalent

  • Consistency test (field test)

Our Balcony Inspection Services

Twining offers a range of services tailored to meet the unique needs of property owners and managers. Our services include:


E3s Housing Balcony Inspections (CP1481)

We specialize in conducting thorough inspections in compliance with CP1481 requirements, ensuring the safety of residents and compliance with local regulations.

Structural Integrity Assessments

Structural Integrity Assessments

Our team assesses the structural integrity of your balconies, identifying potential issues related to materials, connections, and load-bearing capacity.

Safety Audits

Safety Audits

We conduct safety audits to ensure that your balconies meet the highest safety standards, including railings, guardrails, and fire safety measures.

Exterior Elevated Elements (E3s) Housing Balcony Inspection (CP1481)

An Exterior Elevated Elements (E3s) Housing Balcony Inspection (CP1481) is a comprehensive inspection of the balcony structure, including the railings, decking, and supports. The inspection is performed to identify any potential hazards or defects that could compromise the safety of the balcony.

The CP1481 inspection is based on a set of standards developed by the Canadian Construction Association (CCA). The standards cover a wide range of topics, including:

  • Design and construction requirements
  • Materials and workmanship requirements
  • Inspection and testing requirements

We are certified E3s inspector, and we have the experience and expertise to perform comprehensive Balcony Bill Inspections. Our team is well-versed in the local, state, and national building codes, including the requirements outlined in CP1481. We provide a thorough assessment of your balcony's structural integrity, materials, and overall safety, identify potential hazards, and recommend necessary repairs or improvements.

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